European Archives and Resources



European History Primary Sources (European University Institute) - searchable database of repositories including online digitized texts


Austrian State Archives

Zeitschriften Datenbank - Online database for journals, newspapers, monographic series and other serial publications from all countries, in all languages, in printed, electronic, or digitized form. 3,700 participating libraries Austria and Germany



Archives of Belarus


State Archives in Belgium


The Archives State Agency


Croatian State Archives

Czech Republic

National Archives


The State Archives


National Archives

European Union

Historical Archives of the European Union


The National Archives Service of Finland


Archives Nationales

Gallica - the digital library of the Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF)



Das Bundesarchiv

The Political Archive (Federal Foreign Office)

Government Diplomatic Document Collection

Documents on the Foreign Policy of the Federal Republic of Germany, 1949-1984


Der Spiegel 

Die Zeit

Badische Neueste Nachrichten (1946-1950 only)

Cold War - West German

Die Zeit (Hamburg)

Süddeutsche Zeitung (Karlsruhe, 1946-1950)

East Germany

Neues Deutschland, Neue Zeit, and Berliner Zeitung (all Berlin through 1990)

Cultural Institutions and Resources

German Propaganda Archive - includes material from both Nazi Germany and East Germany

General or Subject

German History in Documents and Images (GHDI)

Deutsche Digitale Bibliothek - Offers digital access to books, archived items, images, sculptures, pieces of music, and other sound documents.

Digitales Deutsches Frauenarchiv - Online archive of materials related to the German women’s movement including books

Zeitschriften Datenbank - Online database for journals, newspapers, monographic series and other serial publications from all countries, in all languages, in printed, electronic, or digitized form. 3,700 participating libraries in Germany and Austria

Archiv der sozialen Demokratie, Friedrich Ebert Stiftung - Collection of documents related to the history of social democracy in Germany, including photos and other multimedia.



The General State Archives of Greece

Diplomatic and Historical Archives


The National Archives of Hungary

Hungarian Archives Portal

Vera and Donald Blinken Open Society Archive


National Archives of Iceland


The National Archives of Ireland

Military Archives

Bureau of Irish Military History - A collection of 1,773 witness statements by men and women involved in the Irish Revolution between 1913 and 1921

UCD Digital Library - digitized sources on the history of Ireland, 19th and 20th centuries

Documents on Irish Foreign Policy - 1,900 documents, c. 1921-1960s

Passport Archive Guide to Ireland


Manus Online - Database of manuscripts held in Italian libraries, includes a large number of digitised manuscripts

Vatican Libraries Digital Collections - manuscripts, incunabula, archival materials and inventories as well as graphic materials, coins and medals, printed materials



The National Archives of Latvia




Archives nationales de Luxembourg


Државен архив на Република Македонија (Macedonia State Archives)


The National Archives of Malta

NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)

NATO Archives


The National Archives of Norway


The Head Office of the State Archives


Arquivo Nacional Torre do Tombo

Russia and the Soviet Union

Government Diplomatic Document Collections

State Papers Online (scroll to State Papers Online) - contains several volumes of archival documents relating to the formation and maintenance of diplomatic relations between England (Britain) and Muscovy (Russia)

Russian Archives Database - Project led by the University of Kansas in cooperation with Rosarkhiv to facilitate access to Russian archival materials. Database contains digitized copies of archival collection guides from a range of local and state archives. Continually updated with new materials

Russian Archives Online

Electronic Resources Library of the Moscow State University - digitized primary sources on Russian history. Navigable in either Russian or English, but all sources are in original languages

Russian National Library, Moscow - features several online public access catalogues (much of site in Russian)

Cartography Department

Archives of the Imperial Public Library - 1795-1916

Russian State Library, Moscow - Includes unique domestic and foreign collections in 367 languages of the world. Holdings exceed 47.4 million items. 


Russian Newspapers - 1703-1917

Department of Printed Music and Sound Recordings

Cultural Institutions and Resources

The Fundamental Digital Library of Russian Literature and Folklore - FEB-web is a project of Gorky Institute of World Literature, it’s a mammoth collection of materials on Russian literature and folklore, including full text versions of the major works of Russian literature, links to numerous literary and cultural guides and manuals, as well as a wealth of bibliographic guides detailing materials available from the most broad (Pushkin) to the most specific (historical works published in 1860)

Moscow Kremlin Museums

The Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts

The State Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg. Online Collections

Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow Online Collections

Eurodocs - Early 19th-century Russian Readership and Culture; Russian publications provided by the University of Illinois. Divided into: fiction, journalism, memoirs, and travel accounts

Images of Moscow, 1850-1870s

Russia and Eastern Europe in Rare Photographs - From New York Public Library, 1860-1945. Photos and manuscript facsimiles

Photos from Tsarist Russia: 1891-1904, Russian interface - primary source of posters of Russian cultural, social and political history. Russian/German interface, 1850-2004, images

General or Subject

Runivers (Russian interface) - an electronic facsimile library, mostly history and philosophy c. 1867-1917.

Late Imperial Russia (1855-1917)

Eurodocs - Contains a list of websites with links to sources, mostly in Russian but with some translated into English

Primary Sources from the Crimean War - includes diaries and letters from the English side of the War

The Russian Revolution and World War I (1905-1917)

Documents in History - prominent documents from late imperial and revolutionary Russia

Modern History Sourcebook: Russian Revolution Section (Fordham University) - variety of translated sources relating to the Tsarist state and the Russian Revolution of 1917

Alpha History: Russian Revolution Documents - key documents pertaining to the prelude and consequences of the Russian Revolution(s)

The Bolsheviks Storm the Winter Palace, 1917 - journalist John Reed’s account

Modern History Sourcebook: World War I (Fordham University) - contains a variety of translated sources

People’s Archive of the First World War (in Russian)

World War I Document Archive - pre-1914 to post-1918; translations and transcriptions

Alpha History: Russian Revolution Graphics - a gallery of graphics and cartoons produced both in and outside Russia, c. 1890s-1930

Photos from the Eastern Front, 1914-17 - Include previously unpublished private and military photos from a German officer's collection.

The Soviet Union

Documents of the Soviet Era / (Russian) Federal Archival Agency

A list of translated primary source collections in Soviet History (many of which are electronic), collated by Shane O’Rourke

The Harvard Project on the Soviet Social System online - Based on 705 interviews with emigres from the Soviet Union between 1917 and 1945 about life in the Soviet Union (in English)

The Soviet History Archive - Documents on the Revolution, Civil War, Kronstadt Rebellion, Great Terror, and Second World War

The Marxist Internet Archive - Includes writings of all the major figures in the history of Russian Marxism (e.g., Plekhanov, Lenin, Martov, and Trotsky)

The Stalin Digital Archive - Documents from Stalin’s personal archive. Mostly in Russian, but some translations

Comintern Archives


Archives of the Republic of Slovenia


Passport Archive Guide to Madrid


The National Archives (Riksarkivet)


Swiss Federal Archives

Diplomatic Documents of Switzerland

The Netherlands

National Archives of the Netherlands

The Vatican (Holy See)

Archivio Segreto Vaticano


National Archives

United Kingdom

The National Archives

Churchill Archives Centre

Imperial War Museums

Liddell Hart Centre for Military Archives

RHS List of UK and Ireland Archives and Research Libraries

Official Government Diplomatic Document Collection

British Library: First World War in Europe

British Library Digitized Manuscripts

British Library Oral History Collection

The National Archives - UK National Archives

Anglo-American Legal Tradition - includes images of English legal records from National Archives--largely equity courts, but some other records. Largely in Latin

HANSARD 1803–2005 - British parliamentary debates

Special Branch Files Project - live archive of declassified files focusing on the surveillance of political activists and campaigners in the UK

Royal Army Medical Corps papers

Clergy of the Church of England Database: CCEd

Civil War Petitions - petitions to the English government from veterans and their families during and after the civil wars of the 17th century

Old Bailey Online - The Proceedings of the Old Bailey, 1674-1913 - Central Criminal Court

The Power of Petitioning in Seventeenth-Century England - links to petitions (including at British History online)

Corporate Records

History of Advertising Trust - website holds a great selection of print advertisements

Commercial Break: British Advertising on Screen (from the BFI)

Private Library Archives and Collections

Margaret Thatcher Foundation Archive (all online)

The English Diplomatic Correspondence of Thomas Bodley, 1585-1597

John Thomson photograph collections (and notes), about East Asia

Bodleian Library - links to various British oral history resources

University Collections

LSE Digital Library - has digitized much of its collection: very good on Fabian Society, British political history, poverty surveying (esp. Charles Booth), visual culture and politics (campaign posters), and parts of Women’s Library.


Welsh Newspapers Online - (in English and Welsh), 1804-1919

Cultural Institutions and Resources

BFI Archive Resources Online - Listing of moving images available freely online

Imperial War Museum Collections - Access digitised collections of oral history interviews, photographs, films and objects through the catalogue covering Britain and beyond

ArtUK - UK’s public art collection

Birmingham Museums collection

Deliberately Concealed Garments Project - Discover items which have been hidden or buried in buildings

Lewis Walpole Library - eighteenth-century prints

Museum of London collections

National Museum Scotland collections

National Portrait Gallery collections

National Trust Collections - art and objects

Royal Collection Trust

Victoria and Albert Museum Collections

COLLAGE - The London Picture Archive - over 250,000 images of London (up to the present day)

British Museum Online collections - an unparalleled collection of objects, including a strong collection of Prints and Drawings from the 17th and 18th centuries, and Satires from the 17th and especially the 18th century

British Cartoon Archive

British Pathé - Newsreels and video from the Pathé and Reuters collections

Public Information Films via the National Archives

John Johnson Collection - Collection of Printed Ephemera (lots of advertisements), 18th-20th centuries

London Stage Database

Records of Early English Drama - transcriptions of references to drama, music, performance - much broader than usual ideas of drama


British History Online - primary and secondary sources for the history of Britain and Ireland, mostly 1300-1800

British Library oral history collections

Connected Histories - British History Sources, 1500-1900

London Lives 1690 to 1800 - Crime, Poverty and Social Policy in the Metropolis